Monterrey

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There is no doubt that Mexico has a great deal to offer to those who wish to venture into the charms of its different cities. The city of Monterrey is unique for its magical combination of industry, tradition and natural landscapes.

Surrounded by imposing mountains, the city offers the visitor many different places to visit, not only its splendid natural parks spreading across the highest parts of the city, but a wide range of museums, shops, sports facilities, historical monuments, theatres, cinemas, restaurants, etc.

Over the years, Monterrey has grown and some of what used to be nearby towns, now form part of Monterrey itself. This is the case of areas such as Guadalupe, San Nicol謾s de los Garza, San Pedro Garza Garc鉚a, Santa Catarina, Escobedo and Apodaca, which surround the oldest part of the city and, in many ways, still preserve their own special features and customs.

When one hears about Monterrey, it is common to come across references to its most famous features: El Cerro de la Silla, a hill thus named ('silla' meaning chair or saddle) given the shape of its cusp, which looks very much like a horse saddle.

What is known as Gran Plaza o Macro Plaza, a large green esplanade located in the heart of the city, has many underground shops and restaurants and is surrounded by important historical and governmental buildings, as well as theatres and beautiful constructions such as the Catedral Metropolitana.

Another distinctive feature of Monterrey is the Instituto Tecnol貿gico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, founded by business men from the region with a view to ensuring that in the future they would have highly qualified people able to work in their companies. Students from all over the country come to Monterrey to study here, or nearby at the Universidad Aut貿noma de Nuevo Le貿n.

A tour of Monterrey ought to start somewhere in the Zona Centro; its legendary streets are scattered with museums such as the
Museo de Arte Contempor謾neo (MARCO), the Museo Metropolitano de la Ciudad de Monterrey, the Museo de Historia Mexicana, the Museo Estatal de las Cultural Populares and several others could well serve as an interesting starting point.

The most important hotel area is also here, as well as a good number of shops with a wide range of products at reasonable prices.

In the Zona Centro there is also the area known as the Barrio Antiguo (the old part of Monterrey), where you will find the first constructions of the city. Many of these well-preserved houses, colonial in appearance, are now excellent restaurants and bars, popular among the young and the not so young, especially at the weekends.

Making your way along the Avenida Constituci貿n, a few blocks away, is the Parque Fundidora. Originally an important foundry, it is now open to the public and houses the Museo Industrial y Tecnol貿gico, as well as several other attractions. One of these is Cintermex, a wonderful exhibition and congress centre, where some of the most important trade fairs in the country take place.

In the Parque Fundidora you will also find the amusement park Plaza S茅samo and the Coca Cola auditorium, where many different concerts by important artists take place.

Further North, next to the Ciudad Universitaria, is the Parque Ni帽os H茅roes, which is a perfect place to go simply to take a break from the noise and stress of the city, or to go and visit one of the many museums to be found there, such as the Pinacoteca de Nuevo Le貿n and the Museo de la Fauna y las Ciencias Naturales.

Another of the main green areas in the city is the Parque de la Pastora in Guadalupe; here you will find one of the most important zoos in the North of the country, or if you would rather try an amusement park, Bosque M謾gico is certainly worth a visit.

If what you are really after is practising a bit of sport and breathing clean and fresh air, your choice ought to be
Parque Ecol貿gico de Chipinque. It has several tracks for runners who wish to make their way to the top, and a narrow road for those who prefer cycling, or simply driving up.

One of the most prosperous areas in Monterrey is San Pedro Garza Garc鉚a, where the famous Colonia del Valle is located. It is one of the most luxurious residential areas, with many first class shops and restaurants.

Other important shopping areas are Avenida Paseo de los Leones, on the skirts of the Cerro de las Mitras, Avenida Universidad, in San Nicol謾s de los Garza and Avenida Garza Sada, near the Roma and Contry districts.

History of Monterrey

It being one of the oldest cities in the country, Monterrey has a rich historical background which shows the strength and sheer determination of its inhabitants. The people of Nuevo Le貿n, determined to make something of the hard and rough soil of the country, have managed to turn this region into one of the most prosperous in the country, both economically and culturally.

Although, as far as we know, no pre-Hispanic people settled permanently in this land, we do know for a fact that nomad chichimeca tribes settled temporarily in every corner of these lands and left many interesting cave paintings and petroglyphs we now have the chance to visit in places such as Ca帽貿n de la Huasteca and Mina.

Although, from 1530, several Spanish and Portuguese Conquistadors interested in the mineral resources of the region made various attempts to establish a city there, it was not until 1596, when Don Diego de Montemayor arrived with twelve families and settled in the valley, that the Ciudad Metropolitana de Nuestra Se帽ora de Monterrey was founded. Some of the houses dating back to the beginnings of the city can still be visited today in the area known as the Barrio Antiguo.

The place chosen for the settlement was the natural fountain "Ojo de Santa Luc鉚a, which provided the new town with clean water. Today this place has been turned into a tourist attraction that celebrates with a symbolic river, the water discovered in a dry land and with the Plaza de los 400 a帽os, the historical tradition of the city.

The region was part of the Nuevo Reino de Le貿n. Due to it quicky development, the Pope P鉚o VI ordered in 1777, the Obispado de Linares setting. The bishop Fray Rafael Jos茅 Verger who prefered to remain in Monterrey city, planned to buit a summer house in Loma de Vera, which is what is now known as the Palacio del Obispado.

However, the evangelisation had started a long time before and by that time, there were already many temples and churches in the area. The construction of the Catedral Metropolitana de Nuestra Se帽ora de Monterrey was officially started in 1770, but would not be finished for another sixty years, in 1833. In the meantime, the temple of the convent of San Francisco served its purpose. Other churches from the period are the Capilla de los Dulces Nombres and the Templo del Sagrado Coraz貿n, both of them in what is now the city centre of Monterrey.

In spite of its distance from the centre of the country, Monterrey played an important role in different periods of Mexican history. Jos茅 Herrera, leader of the independence movement, was the first great historical figure of the city, and contributed to the birth of the Free and Sovereign State of Nueva Le貿n, as part of the Mexican Republic in 1824.

The North American and French invasions caused turmoil in the country. Nevertheless, the naming of general Bernardo Reyes as provisional governor, transformed the region. His firm ideas and strict discipline and created an authoritarian regime that lead to the stability required to establish the grounds for the industrialisation and economic development of Monterrey.

It was in these times of prosperity that the Palacio de Gobierno, now to the North of what is known as the Macroplaza, was built. Another interesting construction from the period is the stand in the Plaza Zaragoza, with its bronze sculptures commemorating the four seasons, as well as the first banks in the city.

1910 brought battles all over the country. The revolution was at its peak and Monterrey was no exception. On the 24th of April, 1914, the rebel troupes took the city and overthrew the federal forces. A short time after, Francisco Villa, 'el Centauro del Norte' would arrive.

Trade and industry have been the most important factors of the city's modern history, as of Mexican modern history. Two of the oldest factories are the Cervecer鉚a Cuauht茅moc (Cuauht茅moc Brewery) and the Compa帽鉚a Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey (the foundry). Founded towards the end of the 18th century, both of them are very much part of the city's tradition and play an important role in the cultural life of its inhabitants.

The former is now the Museo de Monterrey and the Sal貿n de la Fama; where the latter used to be, there is now the Parque Fundidora, with an important congress centre (Cintermex), an amusement park (Plaza S茅samo), a technology museum and a show centre (Auditorio Coca Cola).

Monterrey is famous for its educational institutions. The concern regarding a decent education goes back as far as 1870, with the opening of the first Escuela Normal. Eventually several universities were established in the area. The Universidad de Nuevo Le貿n opened in 1933; the ITESM in 1943; and finally the Universidad Regiomontana and the Universidad de Monterrey both opened in 1969.

 

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