Facts about Swaziland

World Facts Index

SwazilandAutonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted in 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s pressured King MSWATI III, the world's last absolute monarch, to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy, although he has backslid on these promises in recent years. A constitution came into effect in 2006, but political parties remain banned. The African United Democratic Party tried unsuccessfully to register as an official political party in mid 2006. Talks over the constitution broke down between the government and progressive groups in 2007. Swaziland recently surpassed Botswana as the country with the world's highest known HIV/AIDS prevalence rate.

Geography of Swaziland

Location:
Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Coordinates:
26 30 S, 31 30 E
Area:
total: 17,363 sq km
water: 160 sq km
land: 17,203 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total: 535 km
border countries: Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
varies from tropical to near temperate
Terrain:
mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Great Usutu River 21 m
highest point: Emlembe 1,862 m
Natural resources:
asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Natural hazards:
drought
Environment current issues:
limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
Geography - note:
landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

Population of Swaziland

Population:
1,128,814 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 40.7% (male 233,169/female 229,103)
15-64 years: 55.8% (male 303,260/female 330,460)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 16,071/female 24,271)
Median age:
18.5 years
Growth rate:
-0.23%
Infant mortality:
71.85 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 32.62 years
male: 32.1 years
female: 33.17 years
Fertility rate:
3.53 children born/woman
Nationality:
noun: Swazi(s)
adjective: Swazi
Ethnic groups:
African 97%, European 3%
Religions:
Zionist (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship) 40%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10%, Anglican, Bahai, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish and other 30%
Languages:
English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.6%
male: 82.6%
female: 80.8%

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
Government type:
monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth
Capital:
Mbabane; note - Lobamba is the royal and legislative capital
Administrative divisions:
4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Independence:
6 September 1968 (from UK)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 September (1968)
Constitution:
the first constitution was signed into law in July 2005 and is scheduled to be implemented in January 2006
Legal system:
based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts and Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age
Executive branch:
chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
head of government: Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso DLAMINI (since 16 October 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister and confirmed by the monarch
elections: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among the elected members of the House of Assembly.
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Libandla, an advisory body, consists of the Senate (30 seats - 10 appointed by the House of Assembly and 20 appointed by the monarch; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats - 10 appointed by the monarch and 55 elected by popular vote; members serve five-year terms)
Judicial branch:
High Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch

Economy

In this small, landlocked economy, subsistence agriculture occupies approximately 70% of the population. The manufacturing sector has diversified since the mid-1980s. Sugar and wood pulp remain important foreign exchange earners. In 2007, the sugar industry increased efficiency and diversification efforts, in response to a 17% decline in EU sugar prices. Mining has declined in importance in recent years with only coal and quarry stone mines remaining active. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa from which it receives more than nine-tenths of its imports and to which it sends 60% of its exports. Swaziland's currency is pegged to the South African rand, subsuming Swaziland's monetary policy to South Africa. Customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union, which may equal as much as 70% of government revenue this year, and worker remittances from South Africa substantially supplement domestically earned income. Swaziland is not poor enough to merit an IMF program; however, the country is struggling to reduce the size of the civil service and control costs at public enterprises. The government is trying to improve the atmosphere for foreign investment. With an estimated 40% unemployment rate, Swaziland's need to increase the number and size of small and medium enterprises and attract foreign direct investment is acute. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and sometimes floods persist as problems for the future. More than one-fourth of the population needed emergency food aid in 2006-07 because of drought, and nearly two-fifths of the adult population has been infected by HIV/AIDS.

GDP:
$5.364 billion (2007 est.)
GDP growth rate:
1.8%
GDP per capita:
$5,000
GDP composition by sector:
agriculture: 11.9%
industry: 51.5%
services: 36.6%
Inflation rate:
4%
Labor force:
155,700
Unemployment:
40%
Budget:
revenues: $805.6 million
expenditures: $957.1 million
Electricity production by source:
fossil fuel: 58%
hydro: 42%
other: 0%
Industries:
mining (coal), wood pulp, sugar, soft drink concentrates, textile and apparel
Agriculture:
sugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep
Exports:
soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit
Export partners:
South Africa 59.7%, EU 8.8%, US 8.8%, Mozambique 6.2%
Imports:
motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Import partners:
South Africa 95.6%, EU 0.9%, Japan 0.9%, Singapore 0.3%
Currency:
lilangeni (SZL)

SOURCES: The CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State, Area Handbook of the US Library of Congress

Copyright 2004 - 2008 www.benweigongshe.cn

国产超碰无码最新上传_亚洲国产在线2020最新_久久影院