Facts about Togo

World Facts Index

TogoFrench Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and fire from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.

Geography of Togo

Location:
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Coordinates:
8 00 N, 1 10 E
Area:
total: 56,785 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
Area comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline:
56 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 30 NM
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources:
phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Natural hazards:
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment current issues:
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Geography - note:
the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

Population of Togo

Population:
5,858,673 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.3% (male 1,177,141/female 1,169,321)
15-64 years: 55.1% (male 1,485,621/female 1,570,117)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 59,870/female 86,632)
Median age:
18.3 years
Growth rate:
2.72%
Infant mortality:
60.63 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.42 years
male: 55.41 years
female: 59.49 years
Fertility rate:
4.96 children born/woman
Nationality:
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups:
native African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%
Languages:
French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9%

Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
former: French Togoland
local long form: Republique Togolaise
Government type:
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Lome
Administrative divisions:
5 regions (regions, singular - region); Kara, Plateaux, Savanes, Centrale, Maritime
Independence:
27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitution:
multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992; adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system:
French-based court system
Suffrage:
universal adult
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE, with the support of the military following international condemnation for the unconstitutional move he then stepped aside pending elections, and Abass BONFOH served as interim president; Faure GNASSINGBE later won popular elections in April 2005
head of government: Prime Minister Gilbert HOUNGBO (since 7 September 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); prime minister appointed by the president.
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Economy

This small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan. Economic growth remains marginal due to declining cotton production, underinvestment in phosphate mining, and strained relations with donors.

GDP:
$5.042 billion (2007 est.)
GDP growth rate:
1%
GDP per capita:
$1,700
GDP composition by sector:
agriculture: 39.5%
industry: 20.4%
services: 40.1%
Inflation rate:
6%
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 65%, industry 5%, services 30%
Budget:
revenues: $251.3 million
expenditures: $292.9 million
Electricity production by source:
fossil fuel: 98.7%
hydro: 1.3%
Industries:
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement; handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Agriculture:
coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Exports:
reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Export partners:
Burkina Faso 16.1%, Ghana 14.8%, Benin 9.2%, Mali 7.5%, India 5.5%, Netherlands 5.1%, China 4.4%
Imports:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Import partners:
China 26.2%, India 12.1%, France 10.5%, UK 8.5% 
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

SOURCES: The CIA World Factbook, U.S. Department of State, Area Handbook of the US Library of Congress

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